During the first 100 days of FDR's presidency, Congress enacted 15 key programs, part of Roosevelt's New Deal.
Often called the "alphabet soup" of agencies, here are ones in FDR's "First Hundred Days."
(aka Emergency Banking Act)
Purpose: "The Emergency Banking Relief Act allowed banks to close down and to reopen banks that were strong enough to survive. The bill also gave the Secretary of the Treasury the right to confiscate the gold of private citizens, in exchange for an equivalent amount of paper currency which was subject to later devaluation in relation to gold." It gave the president power over the banks.
Purpose: The Beer and Wine Revenue Act "amended the Volstead Act of 1919 to legalize the sale of wine and beer that contained no more the 3.2 percent alcohol."
Purpose: "The Reforestation Relief Act, establish[ed] jobs for 250,000 young men in the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). By the program’s end in 1941, 2 million people [had] worked on CCC projects."
Purpose: Congress passed The Federal Emergency Relief Act which "created The Federal Emergency Relief Administration. It was given a start-up fund of $500 million to help the needy and unemployed.
Purpose: "The Emergency Farm Mortgage Act attempted to save the farms of individuals delinquent on their loans by extending repayment schedules and offering emergency financing."
(Supreme Court overturned in 1935)
Purpose: The Agricultural Adjustment Act was "designed to raise farm prices by cash subsidies or rental payments inexchange for reducing crop growth (cotton, wheat, corn), and dairy products such as milk and butter. It also paid them not to raise pigs or lambs."
Purpose: FDR had asked Congress to create “a corporation clothed with the power of government but possessed of the flexibility and initiative of a private enterprise.”
Congress complied and passed the TVA Act which established an "independent public corporation authorized to construct dams and power plants to develop the economic and social well-being of the Tennessee Valley region."
(aka Federal Securities Act)
Purpose: "The Securities Act had two main goals: (1) to ensure more transparency in financial statements so investors can make informed decisions about investments, and (2) to establish laws against misrepresentation and fraudulent activities in the securities markets."
Purpose: "Intended to help coordinate job searches between Federal and state governments."
(aka Home Owners' Refinancing Act or Home Owners' Loan Corporation Act)
Purpose: The Home Owners' Loan [Act] Corporation was established "to help families prevent loss of their homes through mortgage foreclosure."
Purpose: The Banking Act (aka Glass-Steagall Act) established the FDIC as a temporary agency "It separated commercial banking from investment banking, establishing them as separate lines of commerce."
Purpose: Creates the Farm Credit Administration.
Purpose: Creates the National Recovery Administration (NRA).
President Roosevelt signed the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) because he “sought to assist the nation's economic recovery during the Great Depression.
Purpose: The Public Works Administration "budgeted several billion dollars to spend on the construction of public works as a means of providing employment, stabilizing purchasing power, improving public welfare, and contributing to a revival of American Industry...it was designed to spend 'big bucks on big projects.'"
Purpose: The ERTA "investigated railroad labor conditions and helped the railroad industry to reduce duplicate services and facilities, eliminate practices impairing net earnings, and accomplish financial reorganization."