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Citation guide using Noodletools: APA Examples

Learn to cite sources, create notecards, utilize an outline of your work, and format your paper with NoodleTools.

APA Standard Form

A reference list entry generally has four elements: the author, date, title, and source. Each element answers a question:

  • author: Who is responsible for this work?
  • date: When was this work published?
  • title: What is this work called?
  • source: Where can I retrieve this work?

APA Reference Example Youtube/Vimeo

Type of information

Reference list example

YouTube video

Asian Boss. (2020, June 5). World’s leading vaccine

expert fact-checks COVID-19 vaccine conspiracy: Stay Curious #22 [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WQdLDMLrYIA

Generic form

Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. of person who posted the video if known. [User name that posted the video]. (Year video was uploaded, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of Streaming Service. URL

  • Use the name of the account that uploaded the video as the author.
  • If the account did not actually create the work, explain this in the text. However, if that would mean citing a source that appears unauthoritative, you might also look for the author’s YouTube channel, official website, or other social media to see whether the same video is available elsewhere.
  • Provide the specific date on which the video was uploaded.
  • Italicize the title of the video.
  • Include the description “[Video]” in square brackets after the title.
  • Provide the site name (YouTube) and URL of the video.

APA Reference Examples Websites

Author

It can sometimes be difficult to find out who the author of a website is. Remember that an author of a website can be a corporation or group or an individual. Author information can sometimes be found under an "About" section on a website. If there is no known author, you can start the citation with the title of the website instead.

Date

Sometimes finding the date is challenging for websites.  The best date to use for a website is the date that the content was last updated. The date may be at the bottom of the page or next to the title of the article.

If you are motivated and have a little technology experience, you can use the tools listed in this web article to help you find the date.

6 Ways to Find Last Updated Date of a Web Page

If there is no date provided, put the letters (n.d.) in round brackets where you'd normally put the date.

Type of information

Reference list example

Webpage on a website with an individual author

Glassman, S. (2020, November 5). 3 Ways to use research to boost your credibility. The Writing Cooperative. https://writingcooperative.com/3-ways-to-use-research-to-boost-your-credibility-64650b901979

Generic form

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year webpage was last updated/published, Month Day if given). Title of page: Subtitle (if any). Website name. url

  • When individual author(s) are credited on the webpage, list them as the author in the reference.
  • Provide as specific a date as possible for the webpage.
  • Italicize the title of the webpage.
  • Provide the site name in the source element of the reference.
  • End the reference with the URL

Type of information

Reference list example

Webpage on a website with an organizational group author

World Health Organization. (2020, October 13). Antimicrobial resistance. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/antimicrobial-resistance

Generic form

Corporation/Group/Organization's Name. (Year webpage was last updated/published, Month Day if given). Title of page: Subtitle (if any). url

  • For a page from an organization’s website without individual authors, use the full name of the organization as the author.
  • Provide as specific a date as possible for the webpage.
  • Italicize the title of the webpage.
  • Because the author of the webpage and the site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element to avoid repetition.
  • End the reference with the URL.

APA Reference Example Books

Type of information

Reference list example

Book with one author

Chad, O. (2010). How to teach physics to your dog. Scribner.

Generic form

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name often shortened.

  • Provide the author, year of publication, title, and publisher of the book which can be found on the title page at the beginning of the book.
  • Include any edition information in parentheses after the title, without italics.

Type of information

Reference list example

Book with two to twenty authors

Case, L. P., Daristotle, L., Hayek, M. G., & Raash, M. F. (2011). Canine and feline nutrition: A resource for companion animal professionals (3rd ed.). Mosby.

Generic form

Last Name of First Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given, & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name often shortened. 

  • Authors' names are separated by commas. Put a comma and an ampersand (&) before the name of the last author cited.
  • Must include ALL names in the reference list for publications with up to 20 authors.

APA Reference Example Interview

Type of information

In text mention NOT for your Reference list

Interview

J. Zhang (personal communication, August 15, 2020)

An interview is not considered recoverable data, so no reference to this is provided in the reference list. You may, however, cite the interview within the text as a personal communication.

APA Reference Examples Images

Type of information

Reference list example

Image from a book

Hockley, L. (2008). Science fiction. In G. Creber (Ed.), The television genre book (2nd ed., pp. 36-42). Palgrave Macmillan.

Generic form

Artist or Creator, A. (Year). Title: Subtitle [medium (if appropriate)]. Reproduced in Full details of book.

Online image/artwork

Denali National Park and Preserve. (2013). Lava [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/denalinps/8639280606/

Generic form

Artist or Creator, A. (Year). Title: Subtitle [medium (if appropriate)]. Publisher. URL

Images can come from a variety of different print and digital resources. 

Reference List